Today in history 1/16/2020

Today in history, Ivan IV crowns himself the new Czar of Russia in Assumption Cathedral in Moscow in 1547.

Today in history, The Council of Virginia guarantees religious freedom in 1786.

Today in history, John C. Fremont, the famed “Pathfinder” of Western exploration, is appointed governor of California in 1847.

Today in history, General William T. Sherman begins a march through the Carolinas in 1865.

Today in history, One of Ernest Shackleton‘s polar exploration teams reaches the Magnetic South Pole in 1909.

Today in history, Maxim Gorky is authorized to return to Russia after an eight year exile for political dissidence in 1914.

Today in history, Franklin D. Roosevelt asks for an extension of the Social Security Act to include more women and children in 1939.

Today in history, Eisenhower assumes supreme command of the Allied Expeditionary Force in Europe in 1944.

Today in history, The U.S. First and Third armies link up at Houffalize, effectively ending the Battle of the Bulge in 1945.

Today in history, The Egyptian government makes Islam the state religion in 1956.

Today in history, Eighteen are arrested in Mississippi for the murder of three civil rights workers in 1965.

Today in history, The Persian Gulf War begins. The massive U.S.-led offensive against Iraq — Operation Desert Storm — ends on February 28, 1991, when President George Bush declares a cease-fire, and Iraq pledges to honor future coalition and U.N. peace terms.

Today in history 1/15/2020

Today in history, Riots flare in Mexico when it is announced that all churches are to be closed in 1624.

Today in history, In a secret session, Congress plans to annex Spanish East Florida in 1811.

Today in history, Union troops capture Fort Fisher, North Carolina in 1865.

Today in history, The first telephone line between Berlin and New York is inaugurated in 1913.

Today in history, Peasants in Central Russia rise against the Bolsheviks in 1919.

Today in history, The Dry Law goes into effect in the United States. Selling liquor and beer becomes illegal in 1920.

Today in history, The Dumbarton Bridge opens in San Francisco carrying the first auto traffic across the bay in 1927.

Today in history, Amelia Earhart sets an aviation record for women at 171 mph in a Lockheed Vega in 1930.

Today in history, The U.S. Fifth Army successfully breaks the German Winter Line in Italy with the capture of Mount Trocchio in 1944.

Today in history, Chinese Communists occupy Tientsin after a 27-hour battle with Nationalist forces in 1949.

Today in history, UN deadline for Iraq to withdraw its forces from occupied Kuwait passes, setting the stage for Operation Desert Storm in 1991.

Today in history, Wikipedia goes online in 2001.

Today in history 1/14/2020

Today in history, Henry III marries Eleanor of Provence in 1236.

Today in history, Francis of France, held captive by Charles V for a year, signs the Treaty of Madrid, giving up most of his claims in France and Italy in 1526.

Today in history, Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Austrians at Rivoli in northern Italy in 1797.

Today in history, Emperor Napoleon and Empress Eugenie escape unhurt after an Italian assassin throws a bomb at their carriage as they travel to the Paris Opera in 1858.

Today in history, Confederate President Jefferson Davis writes to General Joseph E. Johnson, observing that troops may need to be sent to Alabama or Mississippi in 1864.

Today in history, The USS Arkansas, the largest U.S. battleship, is launched from the yards of the New York Shipbuilding Company in 1911.

Today in history, Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Charles DeGaulle meet at Casablanca to discuss the direction of the war in 1943.

Today in history, UN tribunal sentences 5 Bosnian Croats to prison for up to 25 years in 2000; they were charged with killing some 100 Muslims in a Bosnian village in 1993.

Today in history, The Republic of Georgia restores the “five cross flag” as its national flag after some 500 years of disuse in 2004.

Today in history, Huygens probe lands on Saturn’s moon Titan in 2005.

Today in history, Yemen declares war on al-Qaeda terrorist group in 2010.

Today in history, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, former president of Tunisia, flees to Saudi Arabia after a series of demonstrations against his regime in 2011.

Today in history 1/9/2020

Today in history, Philip V of Spain declares war on France in 1719.

Today in history, Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense, a scathing attack on King George III’s reign over the colonies and a call for complete independence in 1776.

Today in history, Jean Pierre Blanchard makes the first balloon flight in North America in 1793.

Today in history, Southern shellfire stops the Union supply ship Star of the West from entering Charleston Harbor on her way to Fort Sumter in 1861.

Today in history, A Polar exploration team lead by Ernest Shackleton reaches 88 degrees, 23 minutes south longitude, 162 degrees east latitude. They are 97 nautical miles short of the South Pole, but the weather is too severe to continue in 1909.

Today in history, Pancho Villa signs a treaty with the United States, halting border conflicts in 1915.

Today in history, Soviet planes drop leaflets on the surrounded Germans in Stalingrad requesting their surrender with humane terms. The Germans refuse in 1943.

Today in history, Jackie Robinson becomes the highest paid player in Brooklyn Dodger history in 1952.

Today in history, The Assembly of the Serb People in Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaims the creation of a new state within Yugoslavia, the Rupublika Srpska in 1992.

Today in history, Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple, unveils the first iPhone in 2007.

Today in history 10/3/2017-10/5/2017

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10/3/2017:

Today in history, Russia signs a treaty with the Turks, ending a three-year conflict between the two countries in 1739.

Today in history, The first conference on wireless telegraphy in Berlin adopts SOS as a warning signal in 1906.

Today in history, The Space Shuttle Atlantis (see picture below) makes its maiden flight in 1985.

Image result for Space Shuttle Atlantis

Today in history, After 40 years of division, East and West Germany are reunited as one nation in 1990.

10/4/2017:

Today in historyNapoleon Bonaparte rises to national prominence by suppressing armed counter-revolutionary rioters threatening the National Convention in 1795. He will change his surname to Bonaparte in 1796 following his first military victories.

Today in history, The Union ship USS South Carolina captures two Confederate blockade runners outside of New Orleans, La. in 1861.

Today in history, Willie Gillis Jr. (see picture below), a fictional every man created by illustrator Norman Rockwell, makes his first appearance, on the cover of The Saturday Evening Post; a series of illustrations on several magazines’ covers would depict young Gillis throughout World War II in 1941.

Image result for Willie Gillis Jr.

Today in historySputnik 1, the first man-made satellite, is launched, beginning the “space race.” The satellite, built by Valentin Glushko, weighed 184 pounds and was launched by a converted Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). Sputnik orbited the earth every 96 minutes at a maximum height of 584 miles. In 1958, it reentered the earth’s atmosphere and burned up in 1957.

10/5/2017:

Today in history, Women of Paris march to Versailles in what will become known the March on Versailles to confront Louis XVI of France about his refusal to promulgate the decrees on the abolition of feudalism, demand bread, and have the king and his court moved to Paris.The march will be one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution.

Today in history, The first ball-point pen is patented by Alonzo T. Cross (see picture below) in 1880.

Image result for Alonzo T. Cross

Today in history, Bulgaria enters World War I on the side of the Central Powers in 1915.

Today in history, Police attack civil rights demonstrators in Derry, Northern Ireland; the event is considered to be the beginning of “The Troubles” in 1968.